In an earlier post, I covered how to add and remove remote repositories. Now that we’ve told our local git repo where all these remotes are, now what?
We want to share all the changes we’ve made on our project with our collaborators. Or we just want a backup incase our computer catches fire. The next step is to push the changes we’ve made to our remote repo. The push command is pretty safe and it is pretty hard to mess anything up by using it.
Here is the general outline of the command:
git push <alias>
Typically, we will just be pushing to origin, the default remote repository:
git push origin
Sometimes, when we have multiple branches, we might need to specify which branch we want to push to the remote:
git push origin master
And actually, this formula can be generalized as:
git push <alias> <branch name>
With this, we can push to any remote (that we are authorized to access) and specify any branch we like!
Our collaborators have been hard at work! We want to update our local repo with the changes they’ve pushed to our shared remote. If we want to download all of the changes, but not merge them into your files just yet, we want to use the ‘fetch’ command. This is the ‘safer’ command, because we can check on the changes before merging them into our own files.
If we only have one remote:
If we have more than one remote:
git fetch <alias>
If we want to download from all remotes:
git fetch --all
Now we have all of our changes from the remote on our local machine, but our local files haven’t been updated yet.
I like to take a look at what git thinks is happening.
git diff <branch-name> <remote-alias>/<branch-name>
This should show us the changes that will be made to our files. Assuming everything looks about right, it’s time to merge.
Check we are on the correct branch:
git merge <remote-alias>/<branch-name>
Sometimes referred to as a ‘fast forward’, the ‘pull’ command does a ‘fetch’ and a ‘merge’ all in one command. I think of this as THE DANGER ZONE. Sometimes, it is exactly what I want, like when I am the only one making commits to a branch or repo, or I know that I want to merge all the changes in the remote with my own local changes. If this is the case, the pull command makes getting updates from the remote really easy.
git pull <alias> <branch-name>
And we’re done!
- I found this blog post on git fetch vs git pull to be very helpful. Spoiler: git fetch is the way to go!
- As always, obsessively reading the documentation on push, fetch, and pull was really helpful.
- And many thanks go Jeff Felchner for giving a talk at MakerSquare on using Git beyond the basics! Remember kids, NO FORCE PUSH!